Today, there is both increasing interest in the Arctic for economic opportunity, and concern about the future of Arctic people’s cultures and the environment in the face of changing climate and increased human activity. Other nations, such as Russia and China, are moving forward with Arctic economic development. Facilitating exploration and development in the U.S. Arctic would enhance national, economic, and energy security, benefit the people of the north and the U.S. as a whole, and position the U.S. to exercise global leadership. Despite these benefits, there are diverse views on how to balance this opportunity with environmental stewardship. The National Petroleum Council considered these diverse views in generating the report “Arctic Potential: Realizing the Promise of U.S. Arctic Oil and Gas Resources” that is described on these pages.